Project- and Problem-Based Learning is a very popular method of instruction, but PBL is often not designed thoughtfully to address surface, deep, and transfer learning outcomes.
In this book, McDowell describes three key shifts that need to happen in PBL design to reach students' learning goals, which are clarity, challenge and culture.
When these shifts are implemented in PBL design, the result is learners who are both confident and competent.
Confident learners have a growth mindset, are assessment capable, and collaborate.
Competent learners have the right surface and deep knowledge, and can transfer it to new situations.