Who Belongs? : Race, Resources, and Tribal Citizenship in the Native South, Hardback Book

Who Belongs? : Race, Resources, and Tribal Citizenship in the Native South Hardback


For American Indians, the right to determine tribal citizenship is fundamental to the exercise of tribal sovereignty.

The process of deciding who belongs to a given tribe has a complicated history, however, especially in the American South, where Indians who remained following the Indian Removal Act of 1830 became a marginalized and anomalous people in an emerging biracial world.

Who Belongs? tells the story of how in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, despite economic hardships and assimilationist pressures, these tribes insisted on their political identities as citizens of tribal nations and rejected Euro-American efforts to reduce them to another racial minority.

Drawing upon their cultural traditions, kinship patterns, and evolving needs to protect their land, resources, and identity from outsiders, southern Indians constructed tribally-specific citizenship criteria that went beyond the dominant society's racial definitions of "Indian." Mikaela Adams addresses how six southe


  • Format: Hardback
  • Pages: 352 pages, 26 illus.
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Publication Date:
  • Category: History of the Americas
  • ISBN: 9780190619466


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