It is now known that the Framingham score - the basis for the estimation of the total (global) 10-year risk in individuals without known cardiovascular disease or diabetes - has limitations.
So, to refine cardiovascular risk prediction, experts are investigating new techniques for determining risk factors. This book assesses the role of conventional and emerging serum markers and imaging modalities to detect and measure subclinical atherosclerosis.
At the present time, non-invasive CT coronary angiography appears promising for assessing calcium plaques but also vulnerable soft plaques in the coronary arteries that may result in a myocardial infarction. CT coronary angiograms, carotid ultrasound investigation, magnetic resonance plaque characterization, and coronary blood flow measurement by positron emission tomography are also discussed and compared. This book is aimed at disseminating an understanding of the potential of these techniques to a wider audience.